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Eripensionite äravõtmise seadus läbis esimese lugemise

Äsja läbis Riigikogus esimese lugemise nn Herman Simmi seadus (SE 375), mille me algatasime koos Hanno Pevkuri ja Urmas Reinsaluga. Kuna tutvustasin seaduseelnõud Riigikogule, siis vahendan blogis Riigikogu värsket stenogrammi veidi lühendatud kujul.

Käesolev seadus on esmalt ajendatud kõigile hästi tuntud Herman Simmi juhtumist, kes kauaaegse ja kõrge politseiametnikuna sai Eesti riigilt eripensioni. Tõsi küll, praegu eeluurimise ja tulevikus ka võimaliku vanglakaristuse kandmise ajaks on talle eripensioni maksmine peatatud. Kui Herman Simm mõistetakse õigeks, siis maksab riik talle tagantjärele välja ka kogu saamata jäänud pensioni. Kui aga läheb vastupidi ja ta mõistetakse süüdi, siis pärast võimaliku vanglakaristuse kandmist peab Eesti riik jätkama eripensioni maksmist inimesele, keda on karistatud riigireetmise eest. Meie hinnangul on selline olukord ebaõiglane ning sellega tohi leppida.

Ent sellest üksikjuhtumist ajendatuna jõudsid eelnõu algatajad järeldusele, et probleem eripensionidega on laiem kui vaid palju tähelepanu tekitanud üksikjuhtum.

Praegune vastuoluline olukord sai alguse sellest, et 90. aastatel erinevates seadustes sätestatud eripensionide maksmise kord ei võimalda pensioniõigust tagantjärele ära võtta. Toon näiteks politseiteenistuse seaduse, mille kohaselt kaotab õiguse eripensionile politseinik, kes on tööle tulnud joobes. Seda ka näiteks juhtumil, kui inimene on teinud 25-30 aastat korralikult tööd teinud ja paar nädalat enne pensioniõiguse saamist joobnuna tööle ilmub. Samas ei võimalda aga ükski tegu ega kuritegu eripensionit ära võtta endiselt politseinikult pärast seda, kui see on juba määratud. Isegi mitte nii ränga süüteo puhul, nagu seda on riigireetmine.

Eelnevalt kirjeldatud probleemist johtuvalt sätestame eelnõus, et riikliku eripensioni saaja, kes mõistetakse süüdi tahtlikult toime pandud tõsise riigi- või aususevastase süüteo eest, kaotab eripensioni. Põhimõtteliselt võinuks nende kuritegude loetelu, mille eest eripension ära võetakse, olla palju pikem. Otsustasime siiski kitsa loetelu kasuks põhjusel, et riigivastased ja aususevastased kuriteod on otseselt seotud seaduses nimetatud inimeste tööga ning suunatud nende tööandja ehk riigi vastu.

Kindlasti on siinkohal seaduse menetlemisel paslik üheskoos läbi mõelda, kuhu täpselt see joon tõmmata, mille ületamisel eripension ära võetakse. Eelnõu algatajad on aruteluks avatud.

Meenutuseks niipalju, et karistusseadustiku kohaselt on riigivastased kuriteod, näiteks Eesti Vabariigi iseseisvuse ja sõltumatuse vastu suunatud vägivaldne tegevus, riigireetmine, salakuulamine, massilise korratuse organiseerimine jt sarnased teod. Ent eelnõu kohaselt võetakse eripension ära vaid raskemate selles karistusseadustiku peatükis ettenähtud riigivastaste kuritegude eest, nende kuritegude puhul, mille eest on ette nähtud kuni viieaastane vangistus. Näiteks riigisaladuse avalikustamise puhul ettevaatamatuse tõttu eripensionist eelnõu kohaselt ilma ei jää. Karistusseadustiku ametialaste kuritegude peatükis aususe kohustuse rikkumise all sätestatud kuriteod on näiteks pistise võtmine ja altkäemaksu võtmine, pistise andmine ja altkäemaksu andmine.

Samuti ühtlustatakse käesolevas seaduses põhimõtet, et õiguse riiklikule eripensionile kaotab isik, kes on ametikohalt, millel töötamine andis talle õiguse eripensionile, vabastatud süüdimõistva kohtuotsuse jõustumisel tahtlikult toimepandud kuriteo eest. Selle paranduse mõte on selles, et praegu on mõningate elukutsete puhul selline karistus ette nähtud, näiteks politseiteenistuse seaduses, aga teiste eripensioni õigust andvate seaduste puhul mitte.

Meie eelnõu sihtrühm on politseinikud, kaitseväelased, piirivalvurid, prokurörid, endised Riigikogu liikmed, koguni president ja veel mitmed avalikud teenistujad või poliitikud, kellele seadustega on ette nähtud eripension.

Sotsiaalministeeriumi andmetel sai 2007. aastal eripensioni ligi 1900 isikut, kellest 59% olid tööeas. Eripensionit andvatel ametikohtadel töötas eelmisel aastal ligi 7700 inimest ning kaugemas perspektiivis hakkab Sotsiaalministeeriumi hinnangul eripensionit saama ligi 10 000 inimest.

Meie eelnõu seadusena vastuvõtmine suurendab eripensioni saavate endiste riigitegelaste ja ametnike motivatsiooni jätkata seaduskuulekat käitumist nii oma praeguses ametis kui ka tulevikus eripenionärina. Eesti riik annab eripensioni saavatele riigitegelastele ja ametnikele selle seadusega selge sõnumi, et tahtlikult toimepandud tõsise riigi- või aususevastase süüteo korral jäävad nad lisaks heale nimele ilma ka keskmisest märksa suuremast pensionist.

Täiendavad kulutusi eelnõu rakendamisega riigile ei kaasne. Aga algatajad loodavad, et ei teki ka vajadust lõpetada eripensionite maksmist isikutele põhjusel, et selle saaja on süüdi mõistetud tahtlikult toime pandud tõsise riigi- või aususevastase süüteo eest. Seetõttu ei prognoosi algatajad eelnõu rakendamisega riigile ka täiendavaid tulusid.

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